REAL CLEAR CRYPTO: Cryptocurrency – A Beginner’s Guide


By Brittany Keels, COO Sarson Funds

In the world of finance and technology, there’s a term that’s been making waves for over a decade now: cryptocurrency. You’ve probably heard about it in passing conversations, seen it on the news, or even encountered it in some online forums. But what exactly is cryptocurrency, and how does it work? If you’re new to the world of digital currencies and find yourself scratching your head, this article aims to clarify the concept of cryptocurrency for beginners, or as we affectionately call them, “Crypto for Dummies.”

What is Cryptocurrency?

At its core, cryptocurrency is a type of digital or virtual currency that utilizes cryptography for security and operates on decentralized networks based on blockchain technology. Let’s break down that mouthful of terminology:

  • Digital Currency: Unlike traditional forms of money, such as coins or dollars, cryptocurrencies exist solely in digital form. They are intangible and are not issued or currently regulated by any central authority, like a government or financial institution.
  • Cryptography:  This is the discipline focused on safeguarding communication and data through encryption techniques. In the realm of cryptocurrency, cryptography plays a vital role in ensuring secure transactions and regulating the generation of new units.
  • Decentralization: Most cryptocurrencies operate on decentralized networks. This means they are not controlled by a single entity, like a bank or government. Instead, transactions and records are maintained across a distributed network of computers.
  • Blockchain Technology: Blockchain is a technology used for storing information in a tamper-resistant manner, preventing unauthorized alterations, hacks, or manipulations. It operates through a distributed ledger system where transactions are duplicated and dispersed across a network of participating computers.
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How Does Cryptocurrency Work?

Picture sending money to a friend overseas. Traditional banking systems typically involve intermediaries such as banks, leading to delays and fees. Cryptocurrency, on the other hand, enables peer-to-peer transactions without the need for intermediaries.

Here’s a simplified overview of how cryptocurrency transactions work:

  1. Wallets: Before you can send or receive cryptocurrency, you need a digital wallet. This wallet stores your unique public and private keys, which are used to send and receive funds securely. Think of your public key as your account number and your private key as your password.
  2. Transactions: When you initiate a cryptocurrency transaction, it is broadcast to the network of computers known as nodes. These nodes validate the transaction using complex mathematical algorithms to ensure its authenticity.
  3. Mining: Bitcoin and certain other cryptocurrencies employ a method known as mining to authenticate and log transactions on the blockchain. Miners utilize sophisticated computer systems to solve intricate mathematical problems, receiving newly created coins and transaction fees as rewards in exchange for their efforts.
  4. Blockchain Confirmation: Once a transaction is validated by the network and included in a block, it becomes a permanent part of the blockchain. Subsequent blocks are added to the chain, further securing the transaction, and creating an immutable record.

Popular Cryptocurrencies

While there are thousands of cryptocurrencies in existence, a few have risen to prominence:

  • Bitcoin (BTC): Created in 2009 by an anonymous person or group known as Satoshi Nakamoto, Bitcoin was the first cryptocurrency and remains the most well-known and widely used.
  • Ethereum (ETH): Launched in 2015 by Vitalik Buterin and others, Ethereum is a decentralized platform that enables the creation of smart contracts and decentralized applications (DApps).
  • Litecoin (LTC): Created by Charlie Lee in 2011, Litecoin is often referred to as the silver to Bitcoin’s gold and is designed to process transactions more quickly than Bitcoin.
  • Solana (SOL): Launched in 2020 a high-performance blockchain platform designed for decentralized applications (DApps) and decentralized finance (DeFi).
  • USDC (USDC): Is a type of cryptocurrency known as a stablecoin. Stablecoins are digital assets designed to maintain a stable value relative to a traditional currency, typically the US dollar (USD) in the case of USDC. This stability of stablecoins is achieved through various mechanisms, such as being pegged to a reserve of fiat currency or through algorithms that regulate its supply.

Risks and Rewards

While cryptocurrency can offer exciting opportunities for innovation and financial freedom, it’s essential to be aware of the risks involved. Here are a few considerations for beginners:

  • Volatility: Cryptocurrency prices can be highly volatile, with values fluctuating dramatically over short periods. This volatility can present both opportunities and risks for investors.
  • Security: Although blockchain technology offers robust security features, cryptocurrency users remain vulnerable to hacks, scams, and other cybersecurity threats. It is paramount to adopt preventive measures, including utilizing reputable exchanges and bolstering the security of digital wallets with strong passwords and two-factor authentication.
  • Regulatory Uncertainty: The regulatory environment for cryptocurrencies varies widely across jurisdictions and continues to evolve. Regulatory changes can significantly affect the legality and taxation of cryptocurrency transactions, adding to the uncertainty faced by users and businesses.

Despite these risks, many people are drawn to cryptocurrency for its potential to democratize finance, promote financial inclusion, and foster innovation in the digital economy.


While cryptocurrency might appear complex initially, with some knowledge and access to the right resources, anyone can engage in this dynamic realm of finance. Whether your interest lies in investing, conducting transactions, or simply expanding your understanding of the technology, the world of cryptocurrency presents boundless opportunities for exploration and learning. So, embrace the opportunity and embark on your journey into the captivating world of crypto!

Keep in mind that this article only provides a glimpse into the vast world of cryptocurrency. As you delve deeper, remember to keep educating yourself, stay updated on developments, and approach the space with both curiosity and caution.

Disclaimer: This content does not constitute investment advice. All investments involve inherent risks. The author, Sarson Funds, Inc., and its affiliated managers may have holdings in all projects discussed. It is recommended to consult with a financial advisor prior to making any investment decisions, or alternatively, advisors can reach out to Sarson Funds directly at [email protected].